Download 314R-11 Guide to Simplified Design for Reinforced Concrete by ACI Committee 314 PDF

By ACI Committee 314

Summary: (For constructions of constrained measurement and top, according to ACI 318-11 and IPS-1, "Essential standards for strengthened Concrete Buildings"

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If Ρ is less than 0Ό1 we regard it as highly significant. Taking an example, suppose we take a random sample of nine specimens from a large population of steel bars which gave a mean length of 68 in. and the unbiased estimate s of the popula­ tion variance found from the sample was 4-5 in. We wish to know whether these data are consistent with the assumption of a mean length of 68-5 in. for the population, also assuming a normal distribution for the population of steel bars. We have: jc =68-0, i; = 9 - 1 = 8 , s = V4-5 =2-12 and therefore, on the hypothesis that the mean /χ=68·5, we have, \í\=\{x-μ)yn|s =(0-5) x 3/2-12 =0-707 From the table, we find that for i; = 8, the probability that this value of t will be exceeded numerically in random sampling is about 0Ό5.

Since A / i + A í 2 + A í 3 = A / s y s t e m for 8 hr, then 0 · 1 6 + 0 · 0 1 + 0 · 0 6 = 0 · 2 3 = 0 · 7 9 = 7 9 % , which is the same rehability previously calculated by the product law. Thus, system rehability for the series case can be calculated by knowing either the equipment rehability R or the number of equipment failures expected, Xt, Integration of Equipment Reliability into System Reliability The other aspect of rehability calculation in connection with systems is that of combining known individual equipment MTBFs into the system MTBF.

3 . Reliability and unreliability curves. e. 9) As R(t) is always less than or equal to one (it reaches a maximum of 1, at 100%, for an operation time / = 0 ) , it is clear that by multiplication of component reliabilities, the reliability of a complex system decreases rapidly when many components combine in series. For instance, if an equipment consists of 100 independent components in series, each of these components having a rehabihty of 99%, the equipment will have a reliability of only 36-5%, and if the equipment consists of 400 components in series each having a reliability of 99%, the equipment reliabihty will fall to 1-8%, or 98 equipments out of 100 would fail within the period of operation time for which the component reliability was found to be 99%.

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314R-11 Guide to Simplified Design for Reinforced Concrete Builidings by ACI Committee 314

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