By Alfred Thayer Mahan
The heritage of Sea energy is basically, even though not at all completely, a story of contests among international locations, of mutual rivalries, of violence usually culminating in battle. The profound impression of sea trade upon the wealth and energy of nations was once essentially visible lengthy earlier than the genuine rules which ruled its development and prosperity have been detected. To safe to one's personal humans a disproportionate proportion of such advantages, each attempt was once made to exclude others, both by way of the peaceable legislative equipment of monopoly or prohibitory laws, or, while those failed, by means of direct violence. The conflict of pursuits, the offended emotions roused by means of conflicting makes an attempt hence to acceptable the bigger percentage, if no longer the total, of the benefits of trade, and of far-off unsettled advertisement areas, resulted in wars. however, wars coming up from different motives were drastically transformed of their behavior and factor through the keep an eye on of the ocean. consequently the historical past of sea energy, whereas embracing in its large sweep all that has a tendency to make a humans nice upon the ocean or by means of the ocean, is essentially an army historical past; and it really is during this point that it'll be normally, even though now not completely, appeared within the following pages.
A research of the army background of the previous, comparable to this, is enjoined via nice army leaders as necessary to right principles and to the skilful behavior of struggle sooner or later. Napoleon names one of the campaigns to be studied by way of the aspiring soldier, these of Alexander, Hannibal, and Caesar, to whom gunpowder used to be unknown; and there's a big contract between expert writers that, whereas a few of the stipulations of struggle range from age to age with the development of guns, there are particular teachings within the college of background which stay consistent, and being, consequently, of common program, may be increased to the rank of common rules. for a similar cause the examine of the ocean historical past of the previous should be chanced on instructive, by means of its representation of the final rules of maritime conflict, even though the nice alterations which were caused in naval guns via the clinical advances of the prior part century, and via the advent of steam because the rationale power.
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Extra info for Alfred Thayer Mahan - The Influence Of Sea Power Upon History (1660-1783)
The author last quoted speaks again:— “The emperor, whose eagle glance traced plans of campaign for his fleets as for his armies, was wearied by these unexpected reverses. He turned his eyes from the one field of battle in which fortune was faithless to him, and decided to pursue England elsewhere than upon the seas; he undertook to rebuild his navy, but without giving it any part in the struggle which became snore furious than ever... Nevertheless, far from slackening, the activity of our dock−yards redoubled.
1) So far, however, was this influence from being foreseen after Utrecht, that France for twelve years, moved by personal exigencies of her rulers, sided with England against Spain and when Fleuri came unto power in 1726, though thus policy was reversed, the navy of France received no attention, and the only blow at England was the establishment of a Bourbon prince, a natural enemy to her, upon the throne of the two Sicilies in 1736. When war broke out with Spain in 1739, the navy of England was in numbers more than equal to the combined navies of Spain and France; and during the quarter of a century of nearly uninterrupted war that followed, this numerical disproportion increased.
The character and policy of its government were far less favorable to a consistent support of sea power. Composed of seven provinces, with the political name of the United Provinces, the national distribution of power may be roughly described to Americans as an exaggerated example of States Rights. Each of the maritime provinces had its own fleet and its own admiralty, with consequent jealousies. This disorganizing tendency was partly counteracted by the great preponderance of the Province of Holland, which alone contributed five sixths of the fleet and fifty−eight per cent of the taxes, and consequently had a proportionate share in directing the national policy.
Alfred Thayer Mahan - The Influence Of Sea Power Upon History (1660-1783) by Alfred Thayer Mahan