By E. Schoffeniels
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Extra resources for Anti-Chance. A Reply to Monod's Chance and Necessity
These oxidoreductions T H E BASIS FOR A THEORETICAL BIOLOGY 39 take place in mitochondria, the main power plants of the cell. They generate a large a m o u n t of ATP, the most commonly used currency covering the energy expenditure of cells. There exists another source of free energy that can be used by those cells endowed with chlorophyll: this is in the form of solar radiant energy reaching earth as light. Eleventh proposition. A universal type of membrane structure is present in all biological systems.!
An important characteristic of these derivatives is their independence of the oxidoreduction state of the system. They can thus transfer energy between compounds occurring at different oxidoreduction levels. This is illustrated in the phosphorylation of the respiratory chain. L i p m a n n t has formulated the concept of energy-rich compounds intervening in coupled reactions by group transfer. A T P is the nucleotide most widely used in these reactions but it is not special or unique in its properties.
L i p m a n n , Advances in Enzymology, 1, 99 (1941). T H E BASIS FOR A THEORETICAL BIOLOGY 37 and C T P , partake equally in the transfer of energy.! F o r many reasons one is compelled to regard contemporary metabolic sequences which produce A T P as derived from a c o m m o n ancestor. Most authors are unanimous in maintaining that eobionts and primitive cells produced A T P in the course of fermentation reactions. The substrates at that time were provided by abiogenetic syntheses. The modern equivalent of this primitive form of metabolism is encountered in non-photosynthetic anaerobic bacteria.
Anti-Chance. A Reply to Monod's Chance and Necessity by E. Schoffeniels