By Archer K.J., Dumur C.I., Joel S.E.
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More complicated is the attachment of single droplets at microelectrodes. This usually requires the use of an optical microscope and a micromanipulation system. 1 Shi Ch, Anson FC (1998) J Phys Chem B 102:9850–9854 Shi Ch, Anson FC (1999) J Phys Chem B 103:6283–6289 3 Nakatani K, Chikama K, Kitamura N (1999) Laser trapping–spectroscopy–electrochemistry of individual microdroplets in solution. In: Advances in photochemistry, vol 25. , for instance, have used a glass fiber with a tip radius of 5 μm in order to deposit single droplets of nitrobenzene of a diameter between 25 μm and 100 μm in gold microelectrodes [B153].
As the surface tension of water is much higher than that of most organic liquids, it is comparably easier to study the voltammetry of immobilized droplets and films of organic liquids immersed in aqueous solution than vice versa. Immersing an electrode with attached droplets of an aqueous solution into an organic electrolyte solution can easily lead to the detachment of the droplets from the electrode. This is the reason why this experimental setup is only rarely used. An example is the study of Ulmeanu et al.
Chem Lett 851–852 [B132] Scholz F, Komorsky-Lovric´ Sˇ, Lovric´ M (2000) A new access to Gibbs free energies of transfer of ions across liquid-liquid interfaces and a new method to study electrochemical processes at well-defined three-phase junctions. Electrochem Commun 2:112–118 [B138] Jiang J, Kucernak A (2000) The electrochemistry of platinum phthalocyanine microcrystals. I. Electrochemical behaviour in acetonitrile electrolytes. Electrochim Acta 45:2227–2239 [B147] Kucernak AR, Chowdhury PB, Wilde CP, Kelsall GH, Zhu YY, Williams DE (2000) Scanning electrochemical microscopy of a fuel-cell electrocatalyst deposit onto highly oriented pyrolytic graphite.
Assessing quality of hybridized RNA in Affymetrix GeneChip experiments using mixed-effects models by Archer K.J., Dumur C.I., Joel S.E.