By W. Wolfgang Fleischhacker, Ian P. Stolerman
This mini-encyclopedia goals to supply a survey of the wide variety of interventions on hand for treating schizophrenia at a degree acceptable for non-specialists who're starting their engagement within the zone and for others as a resource of reference for the expert. The pharmacological suggestions are thought of along psychosocial administration ways and the benefits and drawbacks of every therapy modality are defined. The entries are written via major specialists, together with simple and scientific scientists in academia and undefined, and comprise descriptions of many suitable primary mental and organic procedures of the illness. the amount owes a lot to the Encyclopedia of Psychopharmacology edited through Ian Stolerman IP (published by means of Springer-Verlag in 2010), from which a few entries are reproduced. the place entries take care of pharmacological interventions, the purpose is to supply particular details at the neuropsychopharmacology of the elements from domain names reminiscent of scientific, experimental, and molecular pharmacology, insofar as they influence upon figuring out of schizophrenia. Articles on non-drug interventions assessment the latest facts base regarding more often than not utilized psychotherapeutic and rehabilitative measures. different essays concentration upon the most important thoughts and examine equipment utilized in the sector, describing the most good points of investigative innovations and outlining their roles, the categories of data received and why they're wanted; the benefits and barriers of a strategy can also be summarized. The essays are complemented by means of many brief definitions of vital phrases; within the curiosity of ease of analyzing, those definitions usually are not assigned to named authors; they're in most cases concerning particular essays that they cross-reference and suitable authorship info are available within the latter.
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Additional info for Encyclopedia of Schizophrenia: Focus on Management Options
While in principle any animal species could be used, in practice the scope of modeling is restricted to laboratory animals. The most exten‐ sively used species has traditionally been the rat, but mouse models are being increasingly developed in order to capitalize on the availability of genetically modified strains. (Genetically modified animals) Other spe‐ cies used occasionally include guinea pigs, marmosets, and chicks. 3. Some earlier definitions of animal models described them as analogous to psychiatric disorders.
J Pharmacol Exp Ther 521:238–246 11. Miyamoto S, Lieberman JA, Fleischhacker WW et al (2003) Antipsy‐ chotic drugs. In: Tasman A, Kay J, Lieberman JA et al (eds) Psychiatry, 2nd edn. Wiley, West Sussex 12. Miyamoto S, Duncan GE, Marx CE, Lieberman JA (2005) Treatments for schizophrenia: a critical review of pharmacology and mechanisms of action of antipsychotic drugs. Mol Psychiatry 10:79–104 13. Seeman P, Lee T, Chau-Wong M et al (1976) Antipsychotic drug doses and neuroleptic/dopamine receptors.
The more valid a model, the more likely it is that insights derived from it will hold true for the clinical condition. Therefore, an assessment of the validity of a model provides an indication of the degree of confidence that we can place in the hypotheses arising from its use. Assessment of validity is not a yes/no judgment, but rather an evaluation of strengths and weak‐ nesses and areas of uncertainty. The systematic validation of an animal model is no different in principle from that of any other psychological device, such as a psychometric test or a psychiatric diagnosis, and the same general approaches to validation are applicable.
Encyclopedia of Schizophrenia: Focus on Management Options by W. Wolfgang Fleischhacker, Ian P. Stolerman